Digital Presentation: Applying Theory to Practice

For my Digital Presentation: Applying Theory to Practice in my Communication 613 course, it was very interesting learning about Canadian-American sociologist and writer, Erving Goffman’s theory and how to apply it to situations, such as the Samsung Galaxy Note 7 recall.  Goffman analyzed the relationship between interpersonal meaning and social structure, paying attention to both the symbolic values of what is said and done and the more abstract forms of social life (Johansson, 2009, p. 120). In other words, image. When most people think about image, they think about their image or their friend’s image, however, image is very important for a company. In explaining image, Goffman believed the concepts of impression management, framing, footing, and face could serve as a theoretical foundation to the empirical study of social interaction in organizational study (Johansson, 2009, p. 120). While working at Verizon Wireless call center, I seen Samsung’s image take a turn for the worst when majority of their Galaxy Note 7 devices started to catch fire and they could not explain why it was happening. Using Goffman’s concepts of impression management, framing, footing, and face, I was able apply the understanding of image to Samsung.

I used a video Editor app for iPhones and iPads, called Splice. While I gained an understanding of the content, putting all my information together in Splice was not the most pleasant task for me. Even though I am not the best with technology, I have used Splice in the past and it was easy to gasp. This time, the app continually kept freezing while I was adding photos and videos. While I was recording, it often stopped in the middle of my recording. But that is technology, of course! What I learned about media presentation from making this presentation is everything takes time. Before recording, I typed what I was planning to say in my digital presentation. Therefore, I assumed it would not take much time to record. However, because of unplanned events, it took most of my evening. Since images on Splice can be no longer than four seconds, I also learned how to use the same image in one voice recording but not have it reloop during the middle of a recording. Splice is a good media production tool to use, especially for beginner video editors (like myself). Overall, media production takes understanding, patience, and time. Once someone masters understanding, patience, and time, then a good quality of work could be created.

For other assignments, I only had to use YouTube, Soundcloud, WordPress, Microsoft Word and Microsoft PowerPoint. And like I previously stated, I used Splice briefly. Because my last video I created on Splice was only one minute, it did not take much work. However, with this presentation, I had to learn how to merge my voice recordings together, so they could easily flow. As well as make sure my images aligned with my voice. Overall, I definitely believe I gained more patience from this project.

Below is my digital presentation on applying theory to practice. Check it out:


Johansson, C., (2009). On Goffman: Researching Relations and Erving Goffman as   Pathfinder. In Ihlen, O., van Ruler, B., & Fredriksson, M. (Eds.),  Public Relations and       Social Theory. Key Figures and Concepts (pp. 119-140). New York Routledge Taylor &           Francis Group.

Oral Presentation: Applying Theory to Practice

For my Oral Presentation:  Applying Theory to Practice in my Communication 613 course, I learned a lot about American sociologist, Peter Berger’s theory and how to apply it to situations, such as Black Lives Matter. Berger believes that communication and language do not mirror reality, rather, they create the social reality. However, language does not describe the reality but is itself a form of action (Heide, 2009, p. 54). I am an African-American young lady, so of course, Black Lives Matter protest affect me. I have family members, as well, as friends who are big supporters of Black Lives Matter. Therefore, the topic of Black Lives Matter protest often comes up in conversations. According to Berger, things are not what they seem; reality has layers of meaning. The hallmark of sociological consciousness is its ability to try to understand reality from several, and often competing systems of interpretation (Heide, 2009, p. 46). To achieve the consciousness discussed, Berger proposed a guide that consisted of his four motifs: Debunking, Unrespectability, Relativization, and Cosmopolitan. From reading the textbook, I could gain an understanding of Berger’s four motifs. Having an understanding not only helps me with applying understanding to everyday situations that I may occur in my life, but it also helps with giving an understanding to others around me who could also be affected.

While I gained an understanding of the content, putting all my information together in SoundCloud was not the easiest task for me. I am not very technology savvy, therefore learning innovative ways of technology sometimes takes me longer than expected. However, after researching how to affectively use Soundcloud, I could successfully record my voice while discussing a Black Lives Matter protest that took place in Charleston, South Carolina, and how Peter Berger’s thoughts on language applies to that protest. Overall, what really helped when it came to using SoundCloud was knowing I could pause at any time in the recording. I did not feel the pressure of knowing I would not be able to pause, just in case something unexpected came up. SoundCloud is a good media production tool to use. Media production takes time to produce, but the outcome of excellent quality work is worth it.

For other assignments, I only had to use YouTube, WordPress, Microsoft Word and Microsoft Powerpoint. So, of, course, for this project, I had to push myself far beyond my previous skills. I had to learn how to record myself using SoundCloud, how to upload it, and how to use the Soundcloud embed code to embed the SoundCloud within my blog post. Overall, the project has been a learning experience. From learning about Peter Berger’s theory and how it applies to my everyday live to how to successfully use SoundCloud, I learned a lot.

Below is my SoundCloud audio on applying theory to practice. Check it out:


Heide, M., (2009). On Berger: A Social Constructionist Perspective on Public Relations and Crisis Communication. In Ihlen, O., van Ruler, B., & Fredriksson, M. (Eds.), Public relations and social theory: Key figures and concepts (pp. 43- 61). New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.

Hundreds call for racial justice in downtown Charleston protest. (2016, July 13). Retrieved May 30, 2017, from



Book Review: How To Change Things When Change Is Hard


Image via Zoo

For my book review assignment in my Communication 613 course, I read the book, Switch: How to Change Things When Change Is Hard, written by brothers, Chip and Dan Heath. Check out the video below:

Just in case you wanted to purchase the book after my awesome book review:

About the authors, Chip and Dan Heath:


Heath C., & Heath, D. (2010). Switch: How to change things when change is hard. New York: Random House. ISBN-10: 0385528752 ISBN-13: 978-0385528757








Digital Presentation: A Look into Sully

I conducted my organizational communication textual analysis project on the film, Sully. The  film displayed all five components (Environment and open systems, Interdependence, Goals, Processes and feedback, Openness, order, and contingency)  of the Systems Approach Theory while dealing with a crisis. Using content analysis to analyze the film, I was able to give a better understanding to how the film viewers were affected by the message in Sully. Below is my digital presentation for A Look into Sully:


THE Creativity Consultant


Hand drawing empty diagram
Image via Peter

I started  a business as a creativity consultant (great news, right?). The first question that comes to many minds is “What is the job description for a creativity consultant?” Well, according to Entrepreneur, a creativity consultant helps organizations develop the thinking skills necessary to be effective, competitive, and relevant to the current economy.

According to theorist, Karl Weick, organizations exist in highly complex and unpredictable  environments. The job of organizing involves making sense of the uncertainties in environments through interaction is called equivocality reduction  (Eisenberg, Goodall, & Trethewey, pg. 89). As a creativity consultant, when offering my ideas to my clients, I will apply Karl Weick’s thoughts, as well as theorist, Peter Senge’s learning organization.

According to Senge, developing a learning organization requires a major shift of mind toward a more participative and holistic notion of effective organizing (Eisenberg, Goodall, & Trethewey, pg. 88). I strongly recommend my clients apply the following three of Senge’s learning organizations features to integrate creativity and innovation into their business:

1. Systems Thinking. In systems thinking, it is claimed that for any member to succeed, all members must succeed (Eisenberg, Goodall, & Trethewey, pg. 88). Therefore,  my clients should push their employees to understand that not one employee contributes more than the other. In order for a company to succeed, each employee must under that they are equal and should work together towards the overall goal.

2. A Shared Vision. Speaking of an overall goal, shared vision is very important in organizations because a shared vision gives employees an understanding of how their own work helps build on to a company  (Eisenberg, Goodall, & Trethewey, pg. 88).

3. Team Learning. Seeing a pattern here? With systems thinking and a shared vision between employees, organizations employees are successfully able to have team learning. With team learning, employees are able to communicate in ways that will eventually lead the team toward intelligent decisions (Eisenberg, Goodall, & Trethewey, pg. 88). Which those intelligent decisions, overall improvement could come within the organization.

Image via Be Thing

The overall of any company is to make sure their employees are displaying teamwork. My clients should implement Peter Senge’s learning organizations features in their business. And as their creativity consultant, I will be with them every step of the way to make sure their organization is successful.



Eisenberg, E.M., Goodall, H.L., Jr., & Trethewey, A. (2010). Organizational communication: Balancing creativity and constraint (6th Edition). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s.

Entreprenuer. (2016). Retrieved from





A Look into Sully


A look into Sully full paper: a-look-into-sully-paper

On average, every day more than eight million people fly (IATA, 2013). Many have said they do not like flying.  It is automatically assumed that the reason for that is because of a fear of heights. However, due to recent horrifying tragedies such as 9/11, or even the deadly shooting that happened at Fort Lauderdale airport, multiple people would say they are afraid of airports and flying because of what could happen at the hands of others surrounding them. Whether those hands are the pilot, flight attendants, airport employees, or other travels. The 2016 film, Sully, based on a true story, is about United airlines pilot, Captain Sully Sullenberger, who landed his plane in New York’s Hudson River after birds blew out his engines, while only being two thousand feet in the air. Captain Sully saved all 155 lives that were on the plane. While he was proclaimed as a hero, he faced public and media attention after the crash. For my organizational communication textual analysis project, I conducted a textual analysis of the film to explore how airlines use Systems Approach Theory while handling crisis management, as well as how airlines approach affects their customers. The film, Sully gives an understanding to how an airline employee should handle themselves during a crisis.

Crisis management should involve the application of strategies designed to help an organization deal with a sudden and significant negative event (What, 2013). It is best for an organization to not avoid crisis management preparation, because every organization is vulnerable to it. The 10 Steps to Crisis Communications states that if an organization does not prepare for a crisis, more damage may occur (Bernstein, 2016). Many airlines have developed organizational structures, such as System Approach Theory, to assist their employees with crisis management. It is believed that if certain protocol is followed, the crisis could be less damaging.

The prevention, response, and recovery phases are all important components of crisis management. Systems Approach Theory can be a strong factor in the prevention stage of crisis management. When systems approach is performed correctly, it leads to a better response/recovery phase.

Literature Review

 According to Eisenberg et, al, (2010), Systems Approach emphasizes the difference between a disconnected set of parts and a collection of parts that work together to create a functional whole. No matter if the organization is an airline, car dealership, or a healthcare environment, all organizations could benefit from Systems Approach. Baur et al, (2013) all used Systems Approach for their health literacy research. The scholars discovered that System Approach helps healthcare organizations “connect the dots” to improve health literacy and person-centeredness in their organization (p. 3).

Richard Riegelman (2013) believes Systems Approach in commercial airlines has been credited with reducing deaths, despite the rapidly increasing number of passengers’ miles flown each year. Riegelman describes a system approach as a way to examine the multiple influences on a problem, isolate the interaction of these influences, identify bottlenecks and leverage points, and look for changes over time. While the article, Why we need a systems approach to prevent deadly medical errors agrees that by using the system approach through software to identify and alert pharmacists to serious drug interactions, the number of deaths each year from medical errors could decrease (ACP, 2017).

While it has been confirmed that system approaches do indeed help organizations maintain their business and decrease crisis management. The main question is what does a system approach consist of? Eisenberg et, al (2010) all described a system as “a complex set of relationship among interdependent components or parts” (p. 79). The relationship that exist among people are what makes the group a system. A breakdown of a system includes environment and open systems, interdependence, goals, processes and feedback, and openness, order, and contingency. They found the environment and open systems component requires members spending significant amounts of time engaging in environment scanning, government scanning, and new technologies. Without one doing so, they felt the organization could be put in jeopardy due to unexpected environmental situations. The interdependence stage explains that no part of a system can stand alone, each part of any system must rely on another part for a job to be effective (Eisenberg, Goodall, & Trethewey, 2010).

While the environment and open system and interdependence component focuses on how to keep a system maintaining. The goals, processes and feedback, and openness, order, and contingency components all focus on the outcome of those components. Eisenberg et, al (2010) imply that in the goals component, goals are central. In this stage, system theory emphasizes that what is good for one level of a system, may not be good for another. In the processes and feedback component, they implied that negative and positive feedbacks are great for any organization. Negative feedback requires an organization to establish strategy or course of action, while positive feedback ensures those same courses of action are considered (Eisenberg, Goodall, & Trethewey, 2010). The final component of system approach, openness, order, and contingency is all about equifinality. This means the same goals may be reached in multiple ways. There is no right or wrong way if the same goals are accomplished. Recognition of these various components is important for an organization to survive.

Systems approach theory is a complex process with multiple stages that requires attention and interaction from the members of the organization. System approach theory is one of the most important theories in management. Chron (2017) describes systems approach as “an efficient system that provides an orderly plan of action with personnel having clearly defined responsibilities that overlap and interlock to ensure that absence of a member results in minimal loss of productivity.


After watching the film, Sully, thoroughly and conducting multiple research on the Systems Approach Theory,  I have provided a theoretical framework and a methodology to determine how organizations, such as airlines apply the Systems Approach Theory while dealing with a crisis.



ACP Internist. (2017). Why we need a systems approach to prevent deadly medical errors. Retrieved from

Bernstein, Jonathan. (2016). The 10 Steps of Crisis Communications. Retrieved from

Chron. (2017). Importance of the System Approach Principle. Retrieved from http://small

Eisenberg, E.M., Goodall, H.L., Jr., & Trethewey, A. (2010). Organizational communication: Balancing creativity and constraint (6th Edition). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s.

IATA. (2013, December 13). New Year’s Day 2014 marks 100 Years of Commercial Aviation. Retrieved from

Koh, H.K., Baur, C., Harris, L.M., & Rowden, J. N. (2013, January). Towards a SystemApproach to Health Literacy Research. Journal of Health Communication. pp. 1-5. doi:10.1080/10910730.2013.759029

What Is. (2013, October). Crisis Management. Retrieved from







My Thoughts on Human Resources

Image via UO

Human Resources. According to Investopedia, human resources (HR)  is defined as a company’s department in charge of finding, screening, recruiting, and training job applicants, as well as administering employee-benefit programs. Now that we have the definition of HR, we will take a look at the history of HR, why organizations have HR, and what I believe to be the functions of the HR department.

According to the textbook, Organizational Communication Balancing Creativity and Constraint (2010), human resources approach is concerned with the total organization climate as well as how an organization can encourage employee participation and dialogue (Eisenberg, Goodall, & Trethewey, pg. 75). Psychologist Abraham Maslow believed human resources movement is when people’s basic needs for food, shelter, and belonging are satisfied before they can move towards achieving their full human potential (Eisenberg, Goodall, & Trethewey, 2010, pg. 75). Human resources is designed for the workplace to become a site where individuals can realize their full potential.

Theorist Douglas McGregor believed human resources task is to arrange things so people achieve their own goals by accomplishing those of their organization (Eisenberg, Goodall, & Trethewey, 2010, pg. 78). I agree with professor Rensis Likert’s beliefs on human resources. Likert believes that all interactions within an organization should support individual self-worth and importance (Eisenberg, Goodall, & Trethewey, pg. 78). When I apply for a job, and go for an interview, the first thing that keeps me interested in the position the organization is offering is appreciation. Even though I am the one being interviewed, I feel it is very important for a job to show their employees and potential employees that they are appreciated.


Image via Pinterest


In my opinion, the functions of a HR department are training, corporate image, and  budget control. When I first started at Verizon Wireless call center, my co-workers and I first two days of training were considered “HR” days. Members of the HR department came in and discussed our pay periods, our time off, our benefits, the dress code, and what to expect at Verizon Wireless.  In my opinion, HR definitely is the heart of any company. Without a HR department, I honestly feel a company would not survive.

Overall, HR departments have been around for decades and decades. Overtime, HR departments have improved tremendously. One motto members of a HR department should always remember is “Happy employees are also productive employees.” Great leadership starts at the top of an organization. In your opinion, what is the most important function of a HR department?



Eisenberg, E.M., Goodall, H.L., Jr., & Trethewey, A. (2010). Organizational communication: Balancing creativity and contraint (6th Edition). Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s.

Investopedia. (2017). Human Resources (HR). Retrieved from